http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20laboratory/mitosis/mitosis.htm


Mitosis and Meiosis

What is Mitosis?


Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid.


N ® N




2N ® 2N


This type of cell division allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue.
Click here to go to the chapter on Mitosis.

Summary of the Phases of Mitosis


The drawings below show chromosome movement and alignment in a cell from a species of animal that has a diploid number of 8. As you view the drawings, keep in mind that humans have a diploid number of 46.

external image mitosi3.gif
Interphase
Chromosomes are not visible because they are uncoiled
external image mitosi11.gif
Prophase
The chromosomes coil.
The nuclear membrane disintegrates.
Spindle fibers (microtubles) form.
The drawing shows a cell with 8 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 2 chromatids for a total of 16 chromatids.
external image mitosi5.gif
Metaphase
The chromosomes become aligned.
The drawing shows a cell with 8 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 2 chromatids for a total of 16 chromatids.
external image mitosi6.gif
Anaphase
The chromatids separate; the number of chromosomes doubles.
The drawing shows a cell with 16 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 1 chromatid for a total of 16 chromatids.
external image mitosi9.gif
Telophase
The cell divides into two.
The chromosomes uncoil.
The nucleus reforms.
The spindle apparataus disassembles.
The drawing shows a cell with 16 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 1 chromatid for a total of 16 chromatids.
external image mitosi8.gif
G1 Interphase
The chromosomes have one chromatid.
The drawing shows two cells. Each cell has 8 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 1 chromatid for a total of 8 chromatids per cell.
external image mitosi10.gif
G2 Interphase
The chromosomes have two chromatids each.
The drawing shows two cells. Each cell has 8 chromosomes. Each chromosome has 2 chromatids for a total of 16 chromatids per cell.

What is Meiosis?


Meiosis produces daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.


2N ® N


Meiosis enables organisms to reproduce sexually. Gametes (sperm and eggs) are haploid.
Meiosis involves two divisions producing a total of four daughter cells.
Click here to go to the chapter on meiosis.

Summary of the


A cell undergoing meiosis will divide two times; the first division is meiosis 1 and the second is meiosis 2. The phases have the same names as those of mitosis. A number indicates the division number (1st or 2nd):

meiosis 1: prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, and telophase 1
meiosis 2: prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, and telophase 2

In the first meiotic division, the number of cells is doubled but the number of chromosomes is not. This results in 1/2 as many chromosomes per cell.
The second meiotic division is like mitosis; the number of chromosomes does not get reduced.

external image img011.gif
Prophase I
Homologous chromosomes become paired.
Crossing-over occurs between homologous chromosomes.
external image img020.gif
Crossing over
external image img012.gif
Metaphase I
Homologous pairs become aligned in the center of the cell.
external image meiosi6.gif
The random alignment pattern is called independent assortment. For example, a cell with 2N = 6 chromosomes could have any of the alignment patterns shown at the left..
external image img013.gif
Anaphase I
Homologous chromosomes separate.
external image img014.gif
Telophase I
This stage is absent in some species

Interkinesis
Interkinesis is similar to interphase except DNA synthesis does not occur.
external image img015.gif
Prophase II
external image img016.gif
Metaphase II
external image img017.gif
Anaphase II
external image img018.gif
Telophase II
external image img019.gif
Daughter Cells




Laboratory Exercise

Mitosis in Animals


Human Chromosomes

1. View a slide of human chromosomes and draw some of the chromosomes below.

2. Do the chromosomes have one chromatid or two?
Below: Human Chromosomes Click on the photograph to view an enlargement.
human_chromosomes_female_X_1000_1.jpg (13835 bytes)
human_chromosomes_female_X_1000_1.jpg (13835 bytes)

Whitefish Blastula

3. The cells of a developing embryo are dividing rapidly and can be used for viewing the different stages of mitosis. Obtain a whitefish blastula (early embryo) slide and find a cell in each of these phases: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
4. Draw a cell in anaphase below.

Below: Whitefish blastula mitosis X 400. Click on the images to view enlargements.
whitefish_mitosis_interphase_X_400.jpg (44673 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_interphase_X_400.jpg (44673 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_prophase_metaphase_anaphaseX400.jpg (83366 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_prophase_metaphase_anaphaseX400.jpg (83366 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_anaphaseX400.jpg (76435 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_anaphaseX400.jpg (76435 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_telophaseX400.jpg (81133 bytes)
whitefish_mitosis_telophaseX400.jpg (81133 bytes)

Additional Photographs of mitosis in animals: Ascaris Megalocephala Mitosis

Mitosis in Plants


1. Cells at the tips of plant roots and stems grow rapidly and can be used for viewing the stages of mitosis. Used a slide of onion (Allium) root tip to identify interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
2. Draw a cell in telophase below. Draw the cell plate if it is visible.

Below: Allium root tip mitosis X 400. Click on the images to view enlargements.
allium_mitosis_prophase_X_400.jpg (53358 bytes)
allium_mitosis_prophase_X_400.jpg (53358 bytes)
allium_mitosis_prophase_anaphase_X_400.jpg (60487 bytes)
allium_mitosis_prophase_anaphase_X_400.jpg (60487 bytes)
allium_mitosis_metaphase_telophase_X_400.jpg (60771 bytes)
allium_mitosis_metaphase_telophase_X_400.jpg (60771 bytes)
alliumm_mitosis_interphase_anaphase_telophaseX400.jpg (77511 bytes)
alliumm_mitosis_interphase_anaphase_telophaseX400.jpg (77511 bytes)


Meiosis in Animals (Gametogenesis)


Testis

1. Obtain a slide of a cross section of rat testes and observe the seminiferous tubules. Identify spermatogonia. Identify sperm.
Below: Rat testes X 100. Click on the image to view an enlargement.
Image3.jpg (92736 bytes)
Image3.jpg (92736 bytes)

Ovary

The primary oocyte is contained within a structure called a follicle. As the follicle enlarges, it produces hormones. During ovulation, the follicle ruptures and releases the secondary oocyte.
2. View a slide of a section of a rabbit ovary under scanning magnification and observe follicles in various stages of development. Can you see an oocyte in any of the follicles?
Below: Rabbit ovary X 40. Click on the image to view an enlargement.
follicle.jpg (209217 bytes)
follicle.jpg (209217 bytes)