1c. Cells




Cells are the Starting Point

Structure of generic animal cell
Structure of generic animal cell
All living organisms on Earth are divided in pieces called cells. There are smaller pieces to cells that include proteins andorganelles. There are also larger pieces called tissues andsystems. Cells are small compartments that hold all of the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful on Earth.

A main purpose of a cell is toorganize. Cells hold a variety of pieces and each cell has a different set of functions. It is easier for an organism to grow and survive when cells are present. If you were only made of one cell, you would only be able to grow to a certain size. You don't find single cells that are as large as a cow. Also, if you were only one cell you couldn't have a nervous system, no muscles for movement, and using the internet would be out of the question. The trillions of cells in your body make your life possible.

One Name, Many Types


Animal and plant cells
Animal and plant cells


There are many types of cells. In biology class, you will usually work with plant-likecells and animal-like cells. We say animal-like because an animal type of cell could be anything from a tiny microorganism to a nerve cell in your brain. Plant cells are easier to identify because they have a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose. Plants have the wall; animals do not. Plants also have organelles like thechloroplast (the things that make them green) or large water-filled vacuoles.

Different types of animal cells
Different types of animal cells


We said that there are many types of cells. Cells are unique to each type of organism. Humans may have hundreds of types of cells. Some cells are used to carry oxygen (O2) through the blood (red blood cells) and others might be specific to the heart. If you look at very simple organisms, you will discover cells that have no defined nucleus (prokaryotes) and other cells that have hundreds of nuclei (multinucleated). The thing they all have in common is that they are compartments surrounded by some type of membrane.